Native American Heritage Month, Indiana’s history, and a season of gratitude
Over 30 years ago, President H.W. Bush and Congress designated November as National American Heritage Month, encouraging all Americans to learn about the contributions, past and current, of North America’s Indigenous peoples. As we celebrate the work and cultures of Native Americans, it is also a good time to help our children learn about our state’s history.
Our state’s name signals Indiana’s connection to Native Americans, meaning “Land of the Indians” and permanently linking our state to its territorial history. The American Library Association (ALA) provides a history of the Indigenous Tribes of Indiana, outlining our state’s history and providing resources that can help everyone dig deeper into individual tribes. Long before Indianapolis earned the nickname of “Crossroads of America,” based on intersecting highways, Indiana functioned as a crossroads for many Native American tribes.
Researcher Tara Kenjockety, part of the Seneca Nation and an enrolled member of the Ho-Chunk Nation of Wisconsin, noted in her research for the ALA that Indiana was considered home to several different indigenous tribes, including the Miami, Wea, Piankashaw, Shawnee, Eel River, Delaware, and Potowatomi. Many additional indigenous tribes had a presence in Indiana at various points in history, including the Kickapoo, Odawa, Chippewa, Wyandot, Kaskaskia, Mahican, Nanticoke, Huron, and Mohegan. The Indiana Department of Natural Resources also provides an overview of the state’s Native American history. Today, Native American Hoosiers are increasing in number, with about 26,086 (0.4%) individuals identifying as Native American in 2020, compared to 18,462 (0.3%) in 2010.
This month, the Indiana Native American Indian Affairs Commission (INAIAC) and Governor Holcomb are highlighting the history, heritage, culture, and current affairs of Native American Indian residents through events across the state. Several local events are complemented by Conner Prairie’s virtual lectures and the Eiteljorg Museum’s Thanksgiving Weekend at the Eiteljorg.
In addition to local, state, and national events and resources, there are ways that we can enhance efforts to educate our children on our Native American heritage.
- Educate yourself on customs, dress, foods, and languages of the wide diversity of Indigenous tribes.
- Avoid stereotypes, instead talk about tribe-specific customs and practices.
- Invite Native Americans to share their experiences, or listen to student webinars such as this one recorded in partnership with the Smithsonian’s National Museum of American Indian.
- Avoid words and phrases that may be offensive, such as “my tribe,” “spirit animal,” “Indian giver.”
- Don’t avoid questions about the history of colonists in our country, particularly the painful realities of how the land was acquired.
- Discuss and celebrate Native Americans’ understanding of natural ecosystems and dedication to environmental preservation.
Perhaps one of the most impactful actions we can take is to focus on Thanksgiving as a holiday of gratitude. Move away from recreating misleading, glossy, and hurtful stories of the “first” Thanksgivings that many of us learned in childhood. Instead, focus on building community connections, eating local foods, and showing gratitude for an abundant feast.
By updating our Thanksgiving celebrations and helping young people understand the history and ongoing impact of Native American people in our state, we can turn learning into action. Acknowledging that Indigenous people are part of communities across Indiana helps go beyond history to build support for rich additions that Native cultures add to our state. And that’s something we can all be grateful for.
Resources to explore topics both present-day and historical of the Indigenous people of Indiana include:
- The American Indian Center of Indiana
- Connor Prairie
- Eiteljorg Museum
- Fulton County Historical Society: Trail of Courage
- Mississinewa 1812
- National Congress of American Indians
- National Museum of the American Indian
- DNR: Native Americans in Indiana
- Series Erosion of the Middle Ground: Native Peoples of the Great Lakes Region after 1815
- Tribal Nations Map: Our Own Names, Our own Locations
Books for younger children:
- 1621: A New Look at Thanksgiving by Catherine O’Neill Grace
- Four Seasons of Corn: A Winnebago Tradition by Sally Hunter
- Fry Bread: A Native American Family Story by Kevin Noble Maillard
- Squanto’s Journey: The Story of the First Thanksgiving by Joseph Bruchac
- We Are Grateful: Otsaliheligaby Traci Sorell
- We Are Water Protectorsby Carole Lindstrom
Books for older children:
- An Indigenous Peoples’ History of the United States for Young People by Roxanne Dunbar-Ortiz
- Apple in the Middle by Dawn Quigley
- House of Purple Cedarby Tim Tingle
- If I Ever Get Out of Here by Eric Gansworth
- In the Footsteps of Crazy Horse by Joseph Marshall III
Additional national resources:
- Language Immersion- A project of the American Indian College Fund
- Pow Wow Etiquette- The cultural courtesies of pow wow gatherings
- How Do I Trace My Indian Ancestry?- Genealogy research manual
- Native American Spirituality- Podcast
- “Hello” in Different Tribal Languages- The word “hello” in over 50 tribal languages
About the Indiana Youth Institute :
For over three decades, Indiana Youth Institute (IYI) has supported the youth services field through innovative trainings’, critical data, and capacity-building resources, aiming every effort at increasing the well-being of all children. To learn more about IYI, visit www.iyi.org, follow us on Facebook or Twitter.